ACT Practice Test 2015-2019 1572CPRE Reading Test Page 1

Below are answer explanations to the full-length Reading test of the previously released ACT from the 2021-2022 “Preparing for the ACT Test” (form 2176CPRE) free study guide available here for free PDF download.

The ACT Reading test explained below begins on page 30 of the guide (page 32 in the PDF). Other answer explanations in this series of articles:

When you’re finished reviewing this official practice ACT test, start practicing with our own 10 full-length practice ACT tests.

Answer Explanations to the 2021-2022 ACT Reading Practice Test

Passage 1 “The Piano Shop on the Left Bank” by Thad Carhart

Question 1: “In Passage A the parenthetical…” The answer is “indicate some of Luc’s firm beliefs about piano care.”

  1. Reading through the parenthetical information in line 19 and lines 21-23, the narrator comments on Luc’s views regarding the care of a piano specifically “one of his cardinal rules” and what “the worst thing you can do to a piano” is.
  2. From this, we know it’s not “how Luc identified aspects of a piano’s history” because the views presented have to do with the care of a piano and not on identifying its history.
  3. The answer choice “portray Luc as overly judgemental…” is incorrect because the narrator does not indicate that Luc’s beliefs were excessively judgemental.
  4. Likewise, the answer “describe the types of rules that visitors to Luc’s shop were required to follow” is also incorrect because the information regarding the care of the piano does not talk about visitors.
  5. Finally, the answer “indicate some of Luc’s firm beliefs about piano care” is correct because the narrator comments on the humidity and transportation by ship both of which affect piano care.

Question 2, “Based on the assertion in Passage A that…” The answer is “It’s better to live a full and imperfect life than not participate because something might go wrong.”

  1. In the passage, the lines following 25-26 indicate that Luc tolerated the depredations worked by children because the piano was used for. This indicates that he prefers that people use the piano to leaving it untouched.
  2. The answer “It’s better to live a full and imperfect life…” is correct because it also conveys the idea that experience and usage are preferable to perfection.
  3. Luc is not suggesting that life is a fragile gift because he indicates he tolerated the depredation because it indicated use. Hence, he would prefer people live life fully.
  4. The answer is not “living well is like playing the piano well…” because this part of the passage does not comment on how well the piano is played.
  5. Lastly, the final answer choice about not taking life’s opportunities for granted is also not the correct answer because Luc does not say to not take pianos for granted.

Question 3, “As it is used in line 32…” The answer is “Marred.”

  1. In line 32 the phrase bit into describes the stains on the shiny finishes. Hence, we can deduce that the phrase describes some defacement of the shiny finishes.
  2. The answer choice “Pinched” can be ruled out because pinched means hurt by financial hardship.
  3. The answer choice “Ingested” can be ruled out because ingested means to take food in by swallowing.
  4. The correct answer is “Marred” because marred means to impair the appearance of. This is similar to the defacement suggested by the phrase bit into.
  5. The answer choice “Severed” can be ruled out because severed means having been cut or sliced off.

Question 4, “In the third paragraph of Passage B…” The answer is “discussing the connection between other musicians and their instruments to pondering his own connection with the violin.”

  1. The narrator describes the connection between Marc Lifschey and Joseph Roisman and their instruments in the first two paragraphs and then spends the fourth paragraph talking about his own connection to his instrument.
  2. The answer choice “making an argument against musicians selling their instruments to using evidence from his life to support that argument” can be ruled out because the narrator does not make any arguments against selling instruments.
  3. The answer choice “introducing musicians he admires to explaining why he hopes people admire him as a musician” can be ruled out because the narrator comments on the connection to his instrument and not on the admiration the musicians receive.
  4. The answer choice “examining his own emotions about his violin to explaining why musicians must develop a partnership with their instruments” can be ruled out because the first two paragraphs are not about the narrator’s own emotions about his violin.
  5. The correct answer is “discussing the connection between other musicians and their instruments to pondering his own connection with his violin” because this shift is characteristic of the change in the message of the first two paragraphs to the fourth paragraph.

Question 5, “In Passage B, the statement that Lifschey…” The answer is “an opinion that the author asserts but does not explain.”

  1. In lines 44-45, the author states that March Lifschey was a great artist but does not proceed to explain why he is great. Instead, the author proceeds to say he achieved this greatness in combination with his instrument.
  2. The answer choice “a fact supported by details about Lifschey’s career” can be ruled out because there is no evidence given to support why Lifschey was a great artist.
  3. The answer choice “a fact confirmed by experts quoted in the passage” can be ruled out because no experts are quoted in the passage to describe why Lifschey was a great artist.
  4. The answer choice “an opinion that the author attributes to Lifschey’s colleagues and students” can be ruled out because the opinion is presented as an opinion of the author and not of Lifschey’s colleagues and students.
  5. The correct answer is “an opinion that the author asserts but does not explain” because the author does not indicate why he thinks Lifschey was a great artist.

Question 6, “In Passage B, it can most reasonably be inferred…” The answer is “Heifetz’s violin doesn’t make sounds by itself.”

  1. In lines 84-86, the passage states that Heiftez reacted to the woman’s congratulation by listening to the violin in its case and commenting “I don’t hear a thing”. This shows that his stance is that the violin is not making the music by itself and requires him to play it.
  2. The answer choice “the woman hears Heifetz’s violin differently than Heifetz does” can be ruled out because he says that he hears nothing and not that he hears something different from the woman.
  3. The answer choice “the woman isn’t qualified to judge the quality of Heifetz’s violin” can be ruled out because he is not addressing the woman’s qualifications.
  4. The answer choice “Heifetz enjoyed the woman’s humorous comment” can be ruled out because the woman’s comment was not humorous and Heifetz did say that he enjoyed it.
  5. The correct answer is “Heifetz’s violin doesn’t make sounds by itself” because his comment that he does not hear a thing suggests that without him the violin does not make any music.

Question 7, “In Passage B, the author most directly indicates…” The answer is “makes him adjust to its whims.”

  1. In line 75, the author states that sometimes the violin “refuses to do my bidding” and he has to adjust to its every whim. This is indicative that sometimes the violin acts against him much like an adversary.
  2. The answer choice “lies mute in its case” can be ruled out because he does not indicate that the violin does not make any sound but rather that he has to change to adjust to the violin.
  3. The correct answer is “makes him adjust to its whims” because he indicates that the violin refuses to do his bidding and he instead has to “cajole, bargain or adjust to its every whim”.
  4. The answer choice “responds with a range of emotion” can be ruled out because the author’s statement of the violin being an adversary does not suggest that the violin responds with a range of emotion.
  5. The answer choice “can’t speak with words” can be ruled out because the author does not talk about how the violin speaks.

Question 8, “Compared to Passage A, Passage B is…” The answer is “interdependence between musician and instrument.”

  1. Passage B talks about Lifschey’s relationship with his oboe, Roisman’s relationship with his violin, and finally the author’s relationship with his own violin. In contrast, Passage A talks about Luc’s stance on piano care.
  2. The answer choice “damage a musician can do to an instrument” can be ruled out because passage A talks about the care of an instrument and the damage a musician can do to an instrument.
  3. The answer choice “characteristics of an instrument that gives clues to its history” can be ruled out because passage A talks about how the characteristics of an instrument can describe who used it and how often it was used.
  4. The correct answer is “interdependence between musician and instrument” because passage B focuses on the relationship between the musician and instrument.
  5. The answer choice “benefits of making instruments available to young children” can be ruled out because passage B does not talk about making instruments available to young children.

Question 9, “In contrast to the way the pianos are described…” The answer is “having an active personality of its own.”

  1. In lines 10-14 of passage A, the author describes pianos as the result of how they are treated. In contrast, in passage B the author describes the violin as refusing to do his bidding.
  2. The answer choice “exhibiting unique characteristics” can be ruled out because in Passage A the author talks about the characteristics of a piano and how they are influenced by its history.
  3. The correct answer is “having an active personality of its own” because the author in passage B comments on how he has to listen to the whim of the violin.
  4. The answer choice “sustaining damage from careless children” can be ruled out because Passage B does not talk about careless children.
  5. The answer choice “being important to daily life” can be ruled out because the author of passage B does not talk about the importance of a violin in daily life.

Question 10, “Which of the following assertions about instruments is most strongly…” The answer is “Familiarity with your instrument is an important part of the joy of playing music.”

  1. In lines 35-37 of passage A the author states that Luc was irritated by people who preserved their piano as an altar but was deeply respectful of musicians who used their instruments. In lines 66-69 of passage B, the author states that the violin was an integral part of his life and was a very close friend.
  2. The correct answer is “Familiarity with your instrument is an important part of the joy of playing music” because both authors talk about the relationship between the instrument and the musician.
  3. The answer choice “Instruments should be revered and never treated like furniture” can be ruled out because passage A says that instruments should not be treated like an “altar upon which to [worship] the art of music”.
  4. The answer choice “Selling your instrument shows disrespect for the music you have made together ” can be ruled out because the author does not talk about how selling your instrument disrespects the music.
  5. The answer choice “Maintaining proper humidity levels is essential preserving an instrument” can be ruled out because the author of passage B does not mention how to properly care for an instrument.

Passage II

Question 11, “The main purpose of the passage…” The answer is “document how Holmes eventually became an enterprising bandleader.”

  1. The passage describes how Holmes began playing music and eventually transitioned to being a bandleader.
  2. The answer choice “explain why Holmes’s musical tastes gradually changed over time” can be ruled out because the article does not explore Holmes’s musical taste but rather focuses on his career.
  3. The answer choice “describe how Holmes’s hectic professional life affects his personal life” can be ruled out because the article does not provide any detail about Holmes’s personal life.
  4. The answer choice “highlight in the different instruments Holmes mastered in becoming a famous musician” can be ruled out because the article does not talk about any other instruments that Holmes learned to play besides the guitar.
  5. The correct answer is “document how Holmes eventually became an enterprising bandleader” because the article looks at how Holmes got his start as a musician and eventually became a bandleader.

Question 12, “One theme of the passage…” The answer is “one’s previous experiences and pursuits can be useful in achieving success.”

  1. The passage explores how Holmes’s childhood being a guitar player affected his career as a bandleader. This ultimately led him to respect the music and therefore endear to his musicians.
  2. The correct answer is one’s previous experiences and pursuits can be useful in achieving success” because the article explores how Holmes history playing guitar for various gigs allowed him to be successful as a bandleader.
  3. The answer choice “talent is the most important factor in achieving success in both business and music” can be ruled out because Holmes does not attribute his success to his talent.
  4. The answer choice “recognizing one’s limitations is necessary in overcoming one’s failures” can be ruled out because the passage does not explore the limitations that Holmes had overcome in his journey to become a bandleader.
  5. The answer choice “pursuing one’s dreams should take precedence over more practical matters” can be ruled out because the article does not focus on not pursuing passions over pursuing practical matters.

Question 13, “Which of the following events referred to…” The answer is “Brawner joined Holmes’s band.”

  1. In lines 77-80, the article says that Sam Brawner played with Holmes for three years. In contrast, Atiba Taylor played with him for four years. Also, Holmes drove the limousine for nine years and started Sound Ideas long before he started working as a bandleader.
  2. The answer choice “Taylor joined Holmes’s band” can be ruled out because Taylor joined prior to Sam Brawner.
  3. The correct answer is “Brawner joined Holmes’s band” because Brawner has only been with Holmes’s band for three years.
  4. The answer choice “Holmes started driving a limousine” can be ruled out because Holmes had driven the limousine for over nine years.
  5. The answer choice “Holmes started Sound Ideas” can be ruled out because Holmes started Sound Ideas prior to him starting his career as a bandleader.

Question 14, “Based on the passage, the residents of Gordon…” The answer is “driven and optimistic.”

  1. In lines 4-9 of the passage, the immigrants in Gordon Heights are described as people who “didn’t come here to fool around” and who had a “sense of ambition”.
  2. The answer choice “artistic and sophisticated” can be ruled out because the passage does not describe the residents as artistic.
  3. The correct answer is  “driven and optimistic” because the immigrants are described as having “ambition” and having an atmosphere of “positive thinking”.
  4. The answer choice “friendly and easygoing” can be ruled out because the article does not describe the residents as being easygoing.
  5. The answer choice “generous and dependable” can be ruled out because the article does not describe the residents as being generous.

Question 15, “The main purpose of the third paragraph…” The answer is “describe what inspired Holmes to start playing music.”

  1. The third paragraph (lines 13-22) describes how Holmes got started listening to music and eventually started playing the guitar.
  2. The answer choice “indicate why Holmes preferred rhythm and blues to Sinatra song” is not correct because the third paragraph does not focus on describing why Holmes preferred rhythm and blues.
  3. The answer choice “establish that Holmes’s parents disapproved of his interest in music” is not correct because the paragraph does not talk about the parents’ disapproval.
  4. The answer choice “reveal that Holmes was considered a musical prodigy” is not correct because the paragraph does not describe Holmes as a musical prodigy.
  5. The correct answer is “describe what inspired Holmes to start playing music” because the paragraph shows how Holmes listened to music and eventually started playing his own music on the guitar.

Question 16, “The main idea of the fourth paragraph…” The answer is “Holmes’s band was able to earn money despite having a limited repertoire.”

  1. The fourth paragraph (lines 23-31) explores how Holmes was able to make money and eventually formed a band that started playing at “battle of the bands, fire halls, [and] high school proms”.
  2. The answer choice “Holmes was better at playing music than he was at promoting his band” is not correct because the paragraph explains that Holmes was able to promote his band well enough that he was making money from it.
  3. The correct answer is “Holmes’s band was able to earn money despite having a limited repertoire” because the paragraph says Holmes’s band only knew how to play three songs but they booked several gigs.
  4. The answer choice “Holmes’s band became a national phenomenon despite the band members’ lack of musical talent” is incorrect because the paragraph does not say they were a national phenomenon nor did it say they lack musical talent.
  5. The answer choice “Holmes would have had more success early on if he had taken the time to learn more songs” is not correct because the paragraph indicates that the band had success early on.

Question 17, “Based on the passage, the main reason Holmes…” The answer is “weddings and private parties were more profitable.”

  1. In lines 5-58, the article says that Holmes was approached about specializing in wedding and private parties because he could make “in one night what [he] used to make in five”. 
  2. The answer choice “he could play a wider variety of music at weddings and private parties” is not correct because the reason Holmes specialized was that he could make more money.
  3. The answer choice “audiences at weddings and private parties were easier to please” is not correct because the article does not suggest that wedding audiences were easier to please.
  4. The correct answer is “weddings and private parties were more profitable” because Holmes specialized for the money he could make from doing it.
  5. The answer choice “weddings and private parties required less travel” is not correct because the article does not talk about the amount of travel required for weddings and private parties.

Question 18, “The main idea of the eleventh paragraph…” The answer is “Holmes’s core lineup of band members has been relatively consistent for a business with a high turnover rate.”

  1. The eleventh paragraph (lines 73-80) focuses on how turnover was common in running a band but his core lineup had “been fairly steady”.
  2. The answer choice “Holmes often has to alter his musical style based on which band members are available to play a gig” is not correct because the paragraph does not talk about the availability of band members.
  3. The answer choice “Holmes typically needs more band members to play at weddings than he needs to play at private parties” is not correct because the paragraph does not mention how many band members are required to play at either gig.
  4. The correct answer is “Holmes’s core lineup of band members has been relatively consistent for a business with a high turnover rate” because he mentions that his core lineup has been fairly steady.
  5. The answer choice “Holmes’s core lineup of band members is constantly changing because Holmes expects his musicians to travel long distances” is not correct because Holmes’s core lineup is steady and not constantly changing.

Question 19, “It can most reasonably be inferred from the passage that Holmes’s…” The answer is “allows band members to showcase their talents during gigs.”

  1. In lines 81-86, the passage states that Holmes lets his musicians take the lead during performances to create the “messy alchemy of live music”.
  2. The answer “is familiar with big band; classical, and country music” is not correct because the reason Holmes’s band members like playing music with Holmes is because they are allowed to take lead during performances.
  3. The correct answer is “allows band members to showcase their talents during gigs” is correct because this closely matches Holmes allowing his musicians take the lead.
  4. The answer choice “played music in the Washington club scene for fifteen years” is not correct because the band members do not mention this as a reason for liking to play with Holmes.
  5. The answer choice “uses sophisticated elements like digital sequences during gigs” is not correct because the digital sequences allow the musicians to take lead and only function to set the tempo and fill musical parts when necessary.

Question 20, “In the passage, the phrase something more canned…” The answer is “recorded music.”

  1. In lines 86-87 of the passage, Holmes is shown to prefer making “live music to something more canned”. This indicates that the phrase something more canned means the opposite of live music.
  2. The answer choice “sound effects” is not the correct answer because sound effects is not the opposite of live music.
  3. The answer choice “music videos” is not the correct answer because music videos are not the opposite of live music.
  4. The answer choice “improvised music” is not the correct answer because improvised music is similar to live music and not something more canned.
  5. The correct answer is “recorded music” because recorded music is the opposite of live music.

Passage III

Question 21, “Which of the following rhetorical techniques does the author…” The answer is “Open-ended questions and appeals directed to readers.”

  1. Throughout the passage, the author repeatedly asks questions such as “Why, then, was this photo taken” (lines 58-59). These questions serve to make the reader think about the topics presented in the passage.
  2. The answer choice “Forthright attacks on what he labels as readers’ misunderstanding of basic historical fact” is not correct because the author does not attack any misunderstanding of the reader.
  3. The correct answer is “open-ended questions and appeals directed to readers” because we see the author asking questions to the reader throughout the passage.
  4. The answer choice “direct quotations from past readers of his work that capture their responses to his ideas” is not correct because the author does not present direct quotations from his readers.
  5. The answer choice “description of his own experiences as a citizen of the Muscogee (Creek) Nation of Oklahoma” is not correct because the author does not use this description to engage the reader.

Question 22, “It can most reasonably be inferred…” The answer is “Any time period since photographs were first taken.”

  1. In the passage, the author states that photographs are educational resources and that there is “always more than face value in any photo” (lines 3-4). This indicates that the author believes that all photos have educational potential.
  2. The correct answer is “any time period since photographs were first taken” because the author states that any photo reveals more than its face value.
  3. The answer choice “in the nineteenth century exclusively” is not correct because the other does not present the qualification that only nineteenth-century photos have educational value.
  4. The answer choice “any time period prior to the digital age, but not beyond” is not correct because the author does not suggest that photos do not have educational use after the digital age.
  5. The answer choice “only in the ten years after photographers first joined government expeditions to the West” is not correct because the author did not suggest this in the passage.

Question 23, “Which of the following words is most nearly…” The answer is “Romanticized (line 28).”

  1. In the passage, the author states that if photos are used “carelessly, they can fuel romanticized and stereotypical perception of American Indians” (lines 27-29). This would indicate that the word romanticized is used to convey a negative emotion.
  2. The answer choice “educational” is not correct because the author’s use of educational is as a positive characteristic of all photos.
  3. The answer choice “Old” is not correct because the author’s use of old is in describing the catastrophic changes Indian people experienced to their way of life. This would indicate that the old way is seen as having a positive connotation to the author.
  4. The correct answer is Romanticized because in the passage it is used to convey what happens when photos are used carelessly.
  5. The answer choice “traditional” is not correct because the use of traditional in line 34 is used to indicate the Apache’s historical lands. This is something that the author would suggest as having a positive connotation.

Question 24, “Which of the following actions referred to in the passage most clearly…” The answer is “’stand next to’ (line 83).”

  1. In the passage, the author asks the reader to try putting themselves “inside these photos – stand next to Goyathlay”. Since placing oneself inside a photo is not physically possible, it would have to be a hypothetical event.
  2. The correct answer is “stand next to (line 83)” because the author uses it as a rhetorical device to ask the reader to imagine being inside a photograph.

Question 25, “Particular photographs of Goyathlay are referred to and described…” The answer is “‘accurately understanding a photograph depends on knowing the circumstances in which a photograph was taken.”

  1. The author uses the particular photographs to illustrate that what was seen in the photograph did not depict the full story. For example, the author mentions a photo of Gyathlay with a rifle and though it personified a dangerous enemy it was taken about “two to four years after Goyathlay surrendered” (lines 55-58).
  2. The correct answer is “accurately understanding a photograph depends on knowing the circumstances in which a photograph was taken” because the author uses these examples to demonstrate that the photograph did not reveal the full story.
  3. The answer choice “photographs can be used to date events in the life of a legendary figure like Goyathlay” is not correct because the author does not use the photographs to date events in the life of Goyathlay.
  4. The answer choice “anyone can control his or her public image by becoming more involved in the field of photography” is not correct because the author does not mention the control that people have on their public image through these examples.
  5. The answer choice “the merits of a photograph from the nineteenth century depend on who took the photograph” is not correct because the author does not address who took these pictures that he cites.

Question 26, “The author most strongly suggests that one reason commercial photographs…” The answer is “influenced to do so by the photographers who had joined government expeditions to the west.”

  1. In the passage, the author states that photographers who accompanied the government expeditions lead the way for commercial photographers (lines 20-25).
  2. The answer choice “instructed to do so by the US government” is not correct because the author does not suggest that commercial photographers followed suit because the government instructed them.
  3. The answer choice “devoted to creating educational resources about native American communities” is not correct because the author does not suggest that commercial photographers were attempting to create educational resources.
  4. The answer choice “committed to overcoming their preconceived ideas about the West” is not correct because the author suggests that the commercial photographers brought their preconceived ideas to the west and did not modify them.
  5. The correct answer is “influenced to do so by the photographers who had joined government expeditions to the west” because the passage suggests that commercial photographers followed the photographers who accompanied the government expeditions.

Question 27, “In the passage, the author notes that a strange aspect of the photo…” The answer is “when Goyathlay was a prisoner of war.”

  1. The author states that the photograph was strangely taken “about two to four years after Goyathlay surrendered” when he was a prisoner of war (lines 55-58).
  2. The answer choice “by an unknown photographer” is not correct because the author does not talk about the photographer who took that photo.
  3. The correct answer is “when Goyathlay was a prisoner of war” because this photo was taken two to four years after Goyathlay surrendered.
  4. The answer choice “with Goyathlay’s permission” is not correct because the author does not mention whether Goyathlay gave permission for the photo to be taken.
  5. The answer choice “by a US government photographer” is not correct because the author does not mention who the photographer was.

Question 28, “The author directly refers to which of the following aspects of the photograph of Goyathlay…” The answer is “Goyathlay’s people had long practiced farming, but the photo seemed to suggest that Goyathlay had learned farming from others.”

  1. The author suggests that the photograph of Goyathlay in the garden could possibly personify the government’s policy towards Indians which taught them to farm. The author then proceeds to suggest that this is ironic because the Apaches had been farmers as part of their traditional life (lines 72-73).
  2. The answer choice “Goyathlay was not a gardener but instead was in the midst of trying to stop the US government’s attack on his people” is not correct because the author states that farming was a part of the Apache traditional life.
  3. The correct answer is “Goyathlay’s people had long practiced farming, but the photo seemed to suggest that Goyathlay had learned farming from others” because the author mentions that farming was part of the Apache traditional life.
  4. The answer choice “People do not automatically think of Goyathlay as a man of peace” is not correct because the author does not mention this as a source of irony.
  5. The answer choice “For years it was assumed to be a photograph of someone other than Goyathlay” is not correct because the author does not mention that the photograph was assumed to be of someone else.

Question 29, “The author indicates that for the sake of an unbiased interpretation…” The answer is “just as important.”

  1. In the passage, the author states that “as much as any written documents,” photographs have to be “read with care… in unbiased and non-stereotypical terms” (lines 76-79). This suggests that to get an unbiased interpretation, photographs have to be read with the same amount of care as any written document.
  2. The correct answer is “just as important” because this conveys the author’s message that both photographs and written documents have to be read with care to get an unbiased interpretation.

Question 30, “In line 86, the word framed is used figuratively…” The answer is “the way background research can support the proper viewing of a photograph.”

  1. In line 86 of the passage, the author uses the word framed to describe the background that is needed to appreciate each photograph’s “potential as a significant educational opportunity and resource”. 
  2. The correct answer is “the way background research can support the proper viewing of a photograph” because this closely reflects how the author suggests that the framing can be used to appreciate a photo’s potential.
  3. The answer choice “a common means of preserving a photograph” is not correct because the author does not use framed in the context of preserving a photograph.
  4. The answer choice “a technique in which a photograph is displayed with factual information surrounding it” is not correct because the author does not suggest that photographs be surrounded by factual information.
  5. The answer choice “the manner in which many photographs of Goyathlay are displayed in museums” is not correct because the author does not comment on the way museums display photographs.

Passage IV

Question 31, “The fourth paragraph (lines 63-71) marks a shift…” The answer is “desert-dwelling plants to desert-dwelling animals.”

  1. The first three paragraphs (lines 1-62) focus on the adaptation of plants to desert conditions. The fourth and fifth paragraphs (lines 63-86) focus on animals that have adapted to desert conditions. Hence, the shift in the fourth paragraph is from desert-dwelling plants to desert-dwelling animals.
  2. The answer choice “plants that store water above ground to plants that store water below ground” is not correct, because the fourth and fifth paragraphs do not talk about plants that store water below ground.
  3. The answer choice “animals that don’t go dormant to animals that do go dormant” is not correct because the passage is not about animals and their dormancy habits.
  4. The correct answer is “desert-dwelling plants to desert-dwelling animals” because we see this shift from the first three paragraphs to the last two.
  5. The answer choice “inhabitants of the Nagev Desert to inhabitants of the northern Australian deserts” is not correct because the passage does not explore the difference in the inhabitants of both deserts.

Question 32, “Based on the passage, the author’s use of the word…” The answer is “having methods of delaying seed germination until a certain amount of water is present.”

  1. In lines 11-13 of the passage, the author uses the word measuring is used to describe how plants ensure that there is sufficient water for them to mature prior to germinating their seed.
  2. The answer choice “have roots that are extremely sensitive to moisture levels in the soil” is not correct because the passage does not mention the root system’s sensitivity to moisture levels.
  3. The correct answer is “have methods of delaying seed germination until a certain amount of water is present” because this most accurately describes how plants delay seed germination based on moisture content.
  4. The answer choice “are visibly more vigorous after a rainfall” is not correct because the passage does not talk about the visibility of plants following rainfall.
  5. The answer choice “can calculate how many inches of rain have fallen in recent days” is not correct because the passage does not indicate that plants can calculate how many inches of rain have fallen.

Question 33, “Which of the following statements best summarizes the process by which…” The answer is “The frog stores water in its body, buries itself and conserves water until emerging at the next rain.”

  1. In the passage, the frog is said to survive by filling up its bladder with water and then burying itself to wait for the next rain (lines 63-71).
  2. The correct answer is “The frog stores water in its body, buries itself and conserves water until emerging at the next rain” because this is how the frog’s water conservation is described in the passage.
  3. The answer “The frog buries itself, waits for rain, absorbs rainwater through its skin, and emerges” is not correct because the frog is not said to absorb rainwater when it is buried.
  4. The answer choice “The frog forms a nearly waterproof cocoon around itself, buries itself, and waits to emerge until it needs water” is not correct because the frog does not create a cacoon.
  5. The answer choice “The frog buries itself, absorbs water through its skin and goes dormant until springtime” is not correct because the frog does not absorb water after burying itself.

Question 34, “Based on the passage, which of the following plants and animals…” The answer is “Honeypot ants only.”

  1. In lines 81-86, honeypot ants are described as storing water and hanging in groups of “Dozens to hundreds…in the ant nest”. This indicates that the honeypot ant employs a communal strategy to survive in the desert.
  2. The answer choice “The saguro cactus only” is not correct because the saguaro cactus is not said to survive via communal strategy, instead it survives via an expansive root system.
  3. The answer choice “The saguaro cactus and the frog Cyclorana platycephala only” is not correct because neither species survives communally.
  4. The answer choice “the frog cyclorana platycephala and honeypot ants only” is not correct because the frog survives by storing water in its bladder and then burying itself. This is not a communal strategy of survival.
  5. The correct answer is “Honeypot ants only” because these are described as surviving together in groups of dozens to hundreds. in the passage.

Question 35, “The passage most strongly suggest that compared to the frog…” The answer is “combine water storage with energy storage.”

  1. In lines 72-76 of the passage, the author states that “honeypot ants have evolved a solution that combines water storage with energy storage”.
  2. The answer choice “can store water inside their bodies” is not correct because both species can store water inside their bodies.
  3. The answer choice “live in Australian deserts” is not correct because both species live in Australian deserts.
  4. The correct answer is “combine water storage with energy storage” because only the honeypot ants combine water storage with energy storage according to the passage.
  5. The answer choice “go dormant during dry times” is not correct because the frog Cyclorana platycephala also go dormant during dry times.

Question 36, “Which of the following provides the best paraphrase…” The answer is “Annual plants survive in deserts by making seeds swiftly when conditions are right.”

  1. In lines 7-11, the passage states that plants have to be quick in responding to rain if there is sufficient water available.
  2. The correct answer is “Annual plants survive in deserts by making seeds swiftly when conditions are right” because this most accurately describes how plants have to quickly respond to sufficient rain conditions.
  3. The answer choice “annual plants in deserts make seeds during dry conditions so the seeds will be ready when rain arrives” is not correct because the passage does not talk about plants making seeds during the dry season.
  4. The answer choice “dry condition require the seeds of desert plants to start germination prior to the arrival of rain” is not correct because these plants do not start germination prior to the arrival of rain.
  5. The answer choice “the seeds of annual plants in deserts are designed to wait years for the right conditions for growth” is not correct because lines 7-11 do not suggest that plants wait years for the right conditions.

Question 37, “Based on the passage, it can most reasonably be inferred…” The answer is “abrasion sustained during flash floods.”

  1. In lines 15-19 of the passage, the author states that some plants have seed coats that must be scarred which only happens “when they are subject to flash floods in the riverbeds”.
  2. The correct answer is “abrasion sustained during flash floods” because this accurately describes the condition the seeds require before germination.

Question 38, “As it is used in line 26, the word extent…” The answer is “degree.”

  1. In line 26 of the passage, the word extent is used to describe the tension increase until the lock mechanism snaps.
  2. The answer choice “length” is not correct because the tension increase is not measured by length.
  3. The correct answer is “degree” because the tension increase can be measured by the degree of increase.
  4. The answer choice “reach” is not correct because the tension increase cannot be measured by reach.
  5. The answer choice “boundary” is not correct because the tension increase cannot be measured by boundary.

Question 39, “According to the passage, which of the following actions…” The answer is “Constructing terraces.”

  1. In lines 41-45, the passage states that the farmers in the Negev region practiced runoff farming which involved making terraces and building large cisterns to house the water.
  2. The answer choice “plowing the soil” is not correct because this would lead to water evaporation, not conservation.
  3. The answer choice “widening gullies” is not correct because the passage does not suggest the farmers of the Negev region used this practice.
  4. The correct answer is “constructing terraces” because the passage states that the farmers of the Negev region made terraces and built cisterns.
  5. The answer choice “constructing aqueducts” is not correct because the passage does not suggest these farmers built aqueducts.

Question 40, “Based on the passage, the pleats in the body…” The answer is “allow the cactus to expand for storing water.”

  1. In the passage (lines 56-58), the Saguaro plant is described to have a trunk that is pleated and can swell to store tons of water.
  2. The correct answer is “allow the cactus to expand for storing water” because the passage describes this as the purpose of the pleating on the trunks of the Saguaro plant.